Determinants of arable crop farmers’ decisions to adapt to climate change risks in Nigeria

Anthony Ojonimi Onoja



This study ascertained the influence of farmers’ perceptions of climate change effects and their household characteristics on the choice of adaptation technologies they adopt. The survey relied mainly on institutional and primary data for its analysis. Primary data was obtained from arable crop farmers using a set of structured questionnaires administered in a multi-stage, stratified random sampling manner. Sixty (60) farmers were selected from randomly selected states for the five agroclimatic zones in Nigeria, giving a total sample size of 300 farmers. The collected data was analysed using Heckman’s probit selectivity model. It was found that extension contact, gender of the head of household, temperature and rainfall levels determined the decision to adapt to climate change. The respective Z estimates of these aspects were 5.75 (p < 0.01), 5.30 (p < 0.01), 2.32 (p < 0.01) and -9.50 (p < 0.01). However, the farmers’ perceptions of climate change effects were determined by education and agricultural extension access. The Z values for these were 5.42 (p < 0.01) and 2.86 (p < 0.01) respectively. The researcher recommends urgent measures to help farmers adapt to climate change, such as the establishment of weather stations and building the capacities of farmers, especially women.