Carbon (CO2) emission and food availability convergence in the Niger Basin region: Insight from a club clustering algorithm

Messiah Abaka John, Walter Okwudili Ugwuoke & Joseph Okwori

The study employed the Phillips and Sul log-t convergence test to analyse the degree of convergence for the Niger Basin region (NBR) countries in terms of per capita carbon emission and food availability. We found that, between the years 1986 and 2020, the Niger Basin region produced 13.5% less food per person than it did during the base period of 2004 to 2006. This study also found a strong convergence among the NBR countries on per capita food production. The result for the region’s convergence of per capita carbon emission was rejected. The non-convergence of the entire sample, and the presence of the different subgroup convergence clubs for per capita CO2 emission for the region, implies that individual factors characterise the NBR countries in terms of per capita CO2 emissions, which in turn determine an idiosyncratic course of their transition path for per capita CO2 emission policies. Considering that the transboundary river basin links nine countries, this study recommends that the NBR countries formulate and implement CO2 emission policies based on club-and country-specific policies to achieve convergence in relation to a concerted food security threat facing the region.